unique, inspiring, off-the-beaten-path Virginia

Here's a complete site index of Virginia's battlefields.

Revolutionary War Battlefields

Civil War Battlefields by Campaign

Manassas Campaign

July 18 - 21, 1861

In the spring of 1861, Confederate troops amassed around Richmond, the new capital of the Confederacy, and in the Shenandoah Valley, the 'Breadbasket' of the Confederacy. The first major battle of the Civil War erupted as the Union attempted to cut the supply line at Manassas Junction between Richmond and the Valley.

McClellan's Operations in Northern Virginia

Oct-Dec, 1861

After the stinging defeat at Manassas I, Gen. George B. McClellan comes east to take command of the Union Army of the Potomac.

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Peninsula Campaign

March 8 - July 1, 1862

In the spring of 1862, Union Gen. McClellan marched up the Virginia Peninsula to take Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, and fought winning battles against Confederate Gen. Johnston. McClellan's luck ran out, however, when Johnston was wounded and replaced by a more daring and aggressive opponent - Robert E. Lee.

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Shenandoah Valley Campaigns

March 23, 1862 - March 2, 1865

In the spring of 1862, Stonewall Jackson launched a brilliant, aggressive campaign in the Shenandoah Valley as both a defense of the 'Breadbasket of the Confederacy' and a diversion of Union troops away from the capital of the Confederacy at Richmond.

In the summer of 1864 Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early launched a series of offenses in the Valley to counteract the operations of Union Maj. Gen. David Hunter.

Late in the summer of 1864, in another attempt to destroy the fertile farms of the Valley, Sheridan led the Union Army in a campaign of systematic looting and burning of the Valley that ultimately sent Confederate General Jubal A. Early into retreat. Early made his last stand in the Valley the following spring at Waynesboro.

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Northern Virginia Campaign

August 9 - September 1, 1862

In the summer of 1862, the new Army of Virginia was organized under Pope, a general fresh from Union victories in the western front. Robert E. Lee ordered Stonewall Jackson to deal with Pope in a series of Confederate victories that would pave the way for Lee's first invasion of Union soil - Antietam.

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Robert E. Lee's Maryland Campaign

September 4 - 20, 1862

Following victory at Manassas II, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee sought to re-supply his Army of Northern Virginia and at the same time stike a blow against the Union prior to the November elections.

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Fredericksburg Campaign

December 11 - 13, 1862

In an effort to position the Union Army of the Potomac between Washington D.C. and the capital of the Confederacy at Richmond, Union Gen. Burnside brought the War to Fredericksburg. A series of grave missteps, however, decimated the Union army, ruined Burnside's career, despaired President Lincoln and established Robert E. Lee as a brilliant strategist.

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Cavalry Rappahannock Campaign

March 17, 1863

After the disaster at Fredericksburg the previous December, the Union Army of the Potomac sought to reorganize and strenghten its cavalry along the Rappahannock.

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Chancellorsville Campaign

April 30 - May 3, 1863

After massive failures in attempting to capture Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, at the battles of Manassas and Fredericksburg, President Lincoln shifted the strategy from taking down Richmond to taking down Robert E. Lee himself and his Army of Northern Virginia.

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Gettysburg Campaign

June 9 - July 23, 1863

After the Confederate victory at Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee set his sights on a northern invasion. The Army of Northern Virginia headed west out of Fredericksburg, crossed the Blue Ridge, headed down the Valley and crossed the Potomac into Maryland before being confronted by the Union Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg.

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Bristoe Campaign

October 13 - November 27, 1863

Following their defeat at Gettysburg, Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virgina retreated through Fauquier County in Northern Virginia. Union Gen. Meade purusued and engaged Lee's army in a series of battles. The largest of these occurred at Bristoe Station.

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Mine Run Campaign

November 27, 1863

After allowing Lee's Army to slip away in defeat after Gettysburg, the Union Army attempted to rout out the Army of Northern Virginia from its camp along the Rapidan River between Orange and Fredericksburg.

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Bermuda Hundred Campaign

May 6 - 20, 1864

In conjuction with the Overland Campaign, the Union attempts to strike Richmond from the east advancing by land northward from the confluence of the Appomattox and James Rivers.

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Lynchburg Campaign

May 15 - June 17, 1864

Under orders from Grant, Union troops to march up The Valley to Lynchburg to destroy the railroads and canals.

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Overland Campaign

May 5 - June 24, 1864

In the spring of the fourth year of the Civil War, Grant launched an offensive against Lee's Confederate army in Virginia. After stalemates at The Wilderness and Spotsylvania, and defeats at North Anna, Totopotomoy, and Cold Harbor, Grant concluded The Overland Campaign and pressed on toward Petersburg and the cutting of the supply lines to Richmond.

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Richmond-Petersburg Campaign

June 9, 1864 - March 25, 1865

Often called the 'Siege of Petersburg', the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign consisted of nine months of trench warfare conducted around Petersburg as Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant attempted to cut the Confederate supply lines from Petersburg to the capital of the Confederacy at Richmond.

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Appomattox Campaign

March 29 - April 9, 1865

After the fall of Petersburg and the evacuation of Richmond, Robert E. Lee marched the remnants of his army westward to Lynchburg to obtain rations and supplies and then march south into North Carolina to join the Confederate army there. Grant pursued and fought Lee's army all the way to their final destination on a long and tragic journey - Appomattox.

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